The Museum is organized around three main themes: Jewish life in the past century, the fate of Jews during the Second World War, and the revitalization of Jewish culture after the war. It has gathered exhibits recalling Jewish life in the 20th century both before and during the Holocaust: objects of everyday use, documents, testimony of witnesses to the Holocaust, photographs and films. These are the most important components of the permanent exhibition. Since the inauguration of the exhibition, more than 40 temporary exhibitions have been organized, some devoted to the past and some stretching into the future. Besides topical exhibitions, there are retrospectives devoted to particular artists, such as one documenting the work of Marc Chagall.
The Museum offers a broad range of symposia, lectures, panel discussions and workshops, some for teachers involved in Holocaust education. It has an educational program for children and teenagers in which they learn about the history, culture and religion of the Jews. It includes workshops, guided tours of the Museum, and the Living Museum interactive website, where students can make a museum of their own individual Jewish heritage online in conjunction with their classroom activities.